托福阅读单词替换有哪些题型

2017-03-28编辑: 朱丁琦来自: 环球教育苏州学校

纵观托福阅读,诚然,对于词汇量有一定要求,但考察根本不局限于此。 从阅读本质上,无论雅思,托福还是SAT,ACT等国际性语言考试,考察根本在于两点:一点就是位置的定位(referring),亦即找到考察所针对的语言位置;另外一点就是句子的同义替换(paraphrasing),也就是识别出语言相近相反。而很多考生就是在阅读时没办法准确判断paraphrasing(同义替换),从而导致失分严重。ETS甚至针对这一语言现象专门出了 “sentence simplification”这一题型。那么对于这一考察,究竟应该怎么做呢? 接下来就来细数一下所谓的paraphrasing 现象究竟有哪几种。

以TPO为例,来看一下一篇文章中究竟会出现多少种同义替换。

第一种:单词替换

这一类型替换其实是语言中最容易辨别的,也就是单词会以原形进行不同的变化。总共有两种不同的变化;

1. 同义词/近义词

原文:The first steps toward change were taken by Solon in594B.C.,when he broke the aristocracy's strangle hold on elected offices by establishing wealth rather than birth as the basis of office holding...

题目:According to paragraph3,an important effect of making wealth the basis of office holding was to

[A]make fewer people qualified to be members of the assembly

[B]make it possible for non-aristocrats to hold office

[C]help the aristocrats maintain power

[D]Increase economic opportunities for all Athenian citizens

原句中的broke the aristocracy’s strangle hold on elected offices 这句话中的broke 为否定词,替换成近义词否定,成为否定前缀non-, 而aristocracy 则替换成同义词,替换成aristocrats。

TPO40 P1T9中也考察了类似变化

原文:Cleisthenes' principal contribution to the creation of democracy at Athens was to complete the long process of weakening family and clan structures...

题目:According to Paragraph 4, one effect of making the demes the point of entry for civic life was to

[A]ensure that every region had the same number of commissioners

[B]distribute the population more equally throughout the Athens region

[C]limit the number of aristocratic clans

[D]reduce the importance of family connections

不难发现原文中的weakening 同义替换成D选项中的reduce,近义词变化,因此答案选D。

这一类型同义替换最主要是考察对于单词的认知,最常见就是相近相似单词的变化,所以在辨识度上面比较容易,对于这样的同义替换现象,其实只要针对固定的单词进行背诵,也就是托福常考的单词类型背诵,其实就可以大大避免错误量。

2. 词组同义替换

TPO40P1T8

原文:By the end of the century,the time was ripe for more change: the tyrants were driven out,andin508B.C.a new reformer, Cleisthenes gave final form to the developments reducing aristocratic control already underway.

题目:The tyrants were driven out, and in 508B.C. Cleisthenes put in place the structures that completed the weakening of the aristocracy

本题中出现的同义替换是词组的同义替换,gave final form替换成completed the weakening , 虽然单词不是特别的难,但是重点在于阅读时不能只阅读单词,而是要以意群式阅读,以词组或者是短语为阅读单位,这样就不容易被此类干扰项混淆。

托福阅读中的替换词第一种:单词替换,就是这样。第二种以后发布哦!

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